PC1 is a highly sensitive, compact, computer-controlled Photon Counting Spectrofluorimeter designed for applications in physical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, neurochemistry, molecular biology, environmental analysis, and immunoassay research.

Key features of PC1 include:

  • Sensitivity
    The compact design optimizes the light path so that the sample compartment receives the maximum possible excitation light. The end result of the compact design is an instrument with an outstanding ability to measure fluorophores with very low quantum yields.
  • Full Automation
    Instrument control and data acquisition are PC-controlled through Vinci. All active instrument components and integrated external devices are displayed on the Instrument Control Window in Vinci. From here, the user has direct remote control over all devices and accessories.
  • Integration of External Devices
    PC1 has the capability to integrate external devices such as a stopped flow accessory, temperature bath, pressure pump, and a titrator. Any of these devices can be directly controlled through Vinci.
  • Data Reduction Management
    Vinci - Multidimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy software acquires data in ASCII format for maximum compatibility with other software packages. Data files can be stored directly on other workstations connected to a local area network.
  • Upgradability
    PC1 is fully upgradable to a time-resolved fluorometer to acquire time-resolved fluorescence and phosphorescence measurements with picosecond resolution. A variety of light sources and other accessories are available for a broad range of applications.

Specifications for PC1

Measurements (Steady-State Fluorescence) • Electrical Time Resolution down to 8 ps FWHM/5 ps rms
• Corrected excitation and emission spectra
• Excitation-emission matrices
• Polarization (anisotropy) measurements
• Millisecond kinetics in photon counting mode
• Dual-wavelength-ratiometric excitation or emission measurements
Light Sources • 300 W high-pressure xenon arc lamp, 45 mW/nm brightness at 275 nm
• Lamp power supply: controllable in current, with time meter
Optional Sources • Laser diodes
• Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
• Continuous wave lasers (argon-ion, krypton-ion, helium-cadmium, etc.)
Monochromators Single concave holographic grating Wavelength range: from 200 nm to 1200 nm (dependent on selected grating)
Wavelength Accuracy ±0.2 nm
Wavelength Reproducibility ±0.25 nm
Slew Rate 160 nm/s (optional double grating)
Lenses UV-grade fused silica lenses
Polarizers • UV-grade Glan-Thompson, 10x10 mm, L/A=2.0
• UV-grade Glan-Thompson, 14x14 mm, L/A=2.0
• UV-grade Glan-Taylor, 10x10 mm, L/A=2.0 (for high power lasers)
Optical Design and Collection Geometry • Parallel beam design for precise polarization measurements
• T-format for simultaneous acquisition on 2 emission channels
Detectors • Selected side-on photomultiplier tubes in room-temperature or cooled housing
• Emission channels PMTs: Model R928 by Hamamatsu
• Reference detector PMT: Model R928 by Hamamatsu
• PMT wavelength range: 240-900 nm
Detection Modes • Photon counting electronics, 10 KHz, on 3 independent channels
• Optional: Analog Output
Pre-Amplifier Discriminators 80 MHz bandwidth, TTL output
Dynamic Range Linear up to 4 million counts/second
Sensitivity 800 fM of fluorescein (with cooled PMT housing)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio • 2000:1 (room temperature PMT housing)
• 6000:1 (cooled PMT housing)
Automation • Control of 4 shutters
• Up to 3 monochromators
• 3 polarizers
• Sample holder rotation
• Stirrers
• Filterwheel
Instrument Interface to RS232 Devices • Titrators
• Stopped-flow apparatus
• Peltier sample compartment
• Flow-through temperature bath
OS Requirements XP, 7
Power Requirements Universal power input: 110-240 V, 50/60 Hz, 400 VAC
Dimensions • 885 mm (L) x 600 mm (W) x 330 mm (H)
• With lamp: 885 mm (L) x 835 mm (W) x 330 mm (H)
Weight 40 kg

Schematic Diagram for PC1

Measurement Examples from PC1

Alexa Fluor 555 in Water

Excitation polarization spectrum of Alexa 555 with a polarization value of P = 0.283 for the recommended excitation range for polarization measurements. Data was acquired on PC1T using a 300W Xenon lamp.


The spectrum was acquired using the PC1 with excitation wavelength set at 380 nm. Emission was scanned from 400 nm to 600 nm. Monochromators bandwidth was 8 nm. Images can be exported in jpg, gif, tiff, png, bitmap, and Windows enhanced meta file.

Selected publications featuring PC1

Below is a list of selected publications featuring PC1. Click here to browse our complete library of publications.

Size Controlled Nano Meter Phase Structure in Thin Films of Blend Polythiophene Derivatives
Cui, H.-N., Teixeira, V., Zhang, J., Lee, H.
Thin Solid Films, 2006, 515(1), 301-306.
Individual Metal Ligands Play Distinct Functional Roles in the Zinc Sensor Staphylococcus aureus CzrA
Pennella, M.A., Arunkumar, A.I., Giedroc, D.P.
Journal of Molecular Biology, 2006, 356(5), 1124-1136.
Specificity in DNA Recognition by a Peptide from Papillomavirus E2 Protein
Faber-Barata, J., Mohana-Borges, R., Lima, L.M. T.R.
FEBS Letters, 2006, 580(8), 1919-1924.
Determination of the Activation Volume of PLCβ by Gβγ-Subunits through the Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure
Scarlata, S.
Biophys. J., 2005, 88, 2867-2874.
A High-Throughput Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for Staphylococcus aureus DNA Ligase
Benson, E.L., Tomich, P.K., Wolfe, M.L., Choi, G.H., Hagadorn, J.C., Mutchler, V.T., Garlick, R.L.
Analytical Biochemistry, 2004, 324(2), 298-300.
On the Use of Theoretical Tools in the Study of Photophysical Properties of the New Eu(fod)3 Complex with Diphenbipy
Dos Santos, E.R., dos Santos, M.A., Freire, R.O., Júnior, S.A., Barreto, L.S., de Mesquita, M.E.
Chemical Physics Letters, 2006, 418(4-6), 337-341.

Accessories available for PC1

The following accessories are available for PC1. For more information please visit our Fluorescence Accessories page.

  • Xenon Arc Lamp
  • Laser Diodes & Light Emitting Diodes
  • One-cuvette Sample Compartment
  • Two-cuvette Sample Compartment
  • Three-cuvette Sample Compartment
  • One-cuvette, Peltier-controlled, Sample Compartmetn
  • Four-cuvette, Peltier-controlled, Sample Compartment
  • Absorption Measurements Accessory
  • Dewar Flask
  • The HPCell™ High Pressure Cell System
  • Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Flow Cell
  • Variable-angle, Front-Surface Sample Compartment
  • Vacuum Chamber
  • UV Glan-Thompson Prism Polarizers
  • Titrators (1 and 2 syringe)
  • Fiber Optics
  • Computer-controlled Filter Wheels