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OxiplexTS™ is a revolutionary new device allowing the measurement of oxygenated and de-oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in tissue. The device works by emitting Near Infrared (NIR) light into tissue at known distances from a collector. Light of two different wavelengths is used and the light is modulated at an RF frequency of 110 MHz. The collected light is measured and processed, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the medium are determined. Once the absorption and scattering are determined, the assumption that hemoglobin is the only significant absorber is applied and the oxygenated and de-oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations are calculated.

The unique feature of the ISS OxiplexTS is that it uses the theory of photon migration through highly scattering media. This patented technology allows for the first time the absolute measurement of absorption and scattering in a highly scattering medium such as human tissue.

Since OxiplexTS measures the absorption and scattering of tissues directly, it does not require any calibration, estimation, or assumption about scattering in order to make an accurate measurement of absorption and, hence, hemoglobin concentrations. This unique ability to separate scattering from absorption sets the ISS OxiplexTS above all other NIR tissue oximeter technologies.

Notice: Investigational device. Limited by Federal (or United States) law to investigational use. The ISS OxiplexTS is presently used for research only.

How OxiplexTS Works

Oxygen concentration in the blood stream can be conveniently determined in-situ by measuring the absorption coefficients of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. A patented technology allows for the first time to measure the absolute scattering and absorption coefficients, and therefore, provide a system that does not require any calibration for the determination of the oxygen concentration.

The oximeter measures the absolute absorption and scattering coefficients of biological tissue. The absorption coefficient is given by the following relation:

[1]

where and are respectively the extinction coefficients at wavelength (λ) for oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. Once μa and μs' are determined at the two separate wavelengths, λ1 and λ2, the concentrations of the two species can be determined. The solution of the linear system [1] for two wavelengths gives:

[2]

From the concentration of the oxy and deoxy species, the hemoglobin saturation Y and the total hemoglobin content THC can be obtained, respectively:

[3]


Opportunities Provided by the OxiplexTS™

OxiplexTS provides exciting opportunities for research in tissue oxygenation. The ISS oximeter will also provide unique opportunities for research in tissue scattering. Never before have researchers been able to make simple, accurate, non-invasive real time measurements of scattering in tissue. This field of research is thus wide open for exploration.


Potential areas of Research

• Effects of exercise on muscle for the diagnosis of Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
• Scanning of the muscle for the location of vascular occlusions
• Effects of pharmaceuticals and/or anesthetic gas mixtures on tissue and/or brain
• Monitoring of brain oxygenation during surgery
• Monitoring of neonatal infant brain oxygenation
• Monitoring oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration status of cancer tumors

Applications of OxiplexTS™

Several areas may benefit from the monitoring of the absolute values of tissue oxygenation, especially when pulse oximetry is not applicable because of the irregularity, or the lack of, the heartbeat, and in all the cases where the tissue oxygenation, and not the arterial oxygen saturation, is the parameter of interest. Therefore, the applications of the OxiplexTS include but are not limited to:

Premature Infant Intensive Care
Sleep Apnea
Sports Medicine & Kinesiology
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Monitoring Brain Oxygenation in OR/ER/ICU
• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
• Anesthesiology
• Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery
• Neurosurgery
• Tumor Oxygenation
• Women's Health
• Obstetrics
• High Altitude Physiology
• Tissue Oxygenation in Hyperbaric Chambers
• Ergonomics

Measurements Acquired Using OxiplexTS

The plots below show measurements on human calf muscle during exercise. Changes in hemoglobin oxygenation and concentration can be correlated with various clinical conditions. For example, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration during exercise accompanied by no change or an increase in de-oxygenated hemoglobin concentration may indicate a venous occlusion which restricts the flow of de-oxygenated hemoglobin out of tissue. Similarly, arterial occlusions may be identified by significant decreases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations. The magnitude of hemoglobin changes as well as the rate of change may correlate with the type and extent of vascular disease. A wide variety of tissue oxygenation research is possible.

Figure (a) shows the ratio of Oxygenated to Total Hemoglobin Concentration as a percent. Also shown are some of the measurement parameters that can be correlated with physiological conditions including baseline (pre-exercise) value, change as a result of exercise, rates of change at the beginning and end of exercise, and final value after recovery from exercise.

Figure (b) shows Total Hemoglobin Concentration (in micromoles per liter).

Figure (c) shows Deoxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration.

Figure (d) shows Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration.

Neonatal Applications

  Noninvasivasive monitoring of red blood cell transfusion in very low birthweight infants using diffuse optical spectroscopy.
A. Cerussi, R. Van Woerkom, F. Waffarn and B. Tromberg.
J. Biomed. Optics: 10(5), 2005
  Noninvasivasive monitoring of hemodynamic stress using quantitative near-infrared frequency-domain photon migration spectroscopy.
Tuan H. Pham, R. Horniung, H. P. Ha, T. Burney, D. Serna, L. Powell, M. Brenner and B. Tromberg.
J. Biomed. Optics: 7(1), 34-44, 2002

Neurovascular Surgery - Anesthesiology

  Detection of cerebral ischemia in neurovascular surgery using quantitative frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy
Mateo Calderon-Arnulphi, MD; Ali Alaraj, MD; sepideh amin-hanjani, MD; william w. mantulin, Ph.d.,2 chiara m. polzonetti, MS; Enrico Gratton, PhD;
Fady t. Charbel, MD; J Neurosurg 106:283-290, 2007
Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy technique in the assessment of brain oxygenation: A validation study in live subjects and cadavers.
Gatto R, Hoffman W, Mueller M, Flores A, Valyi-Nagy T, Charbel FT.
J Neurosci Methods. 2006 May 23; [Epub ahead of print]
  Brain Oxyhemoglobin Stimulation during Intubation
William E. Hoffman, Ph.D., Rodolfo Gatto, M.D., Verna L. Baughman, M.D., Fady Charbel, M.D
Proceedings of American Society of Anesthesiology: A1034: October 14-18, 2006
  Is Outcome in Neurosurgery Related to Brain Hypoxia?
Verna L. Baughman, M.D., Onn Paisansathan, M.D., William E. Hoffman, Ph.D., Rodolfo Gatto, M.D., Fady Charbel, M.D.
Proceedings of American Society of Anesthesiology: A55: October 14-18, 2006
  Quantitative Evaluation of Dexmedetomidine Effects on Regional Brain Tissue Oxygenation
Rodolfo G. Gatto, M.D., William Hoffman, Ph.D., Verna Baughman, M.D., Fady T. Charbel, M.D.
Proceedings of American Society of Anesthesiology: A198: October 14-18, 2006
  Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Autoregulation Using Frequency Domain Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.
Mateo Calderon-Arnulphi, MD; Ali M. Alaraj, MD; Rodolfo G. Gatto, MD; Hrachya Nersesyan, MD; William Mantulin, PhD; Antonios Michalos, MD; Enrico Gratton, PhD; Fady T. Charbel, MD.
55th annual meeting. Congress of Neurological Surgeons October8-13, 2005
  Prediction of Cerebral Ischemia in Neurovascular Surgery.
Mateo Calderon-Arnulphi, MD; Gatto Rodolfo, MD; Ali Alaraj, MD; Hrachya Nersesyan, MD; William Mantulin, PhD; Antonios Michalos, MD; Enrico Gratton , PhD; Fady T. Charbel, MD.
55th annual meeting. Congress of Neurological Surgeons October8-13, 2005
  Changes in oxygenation and hemodynamics in the human head assessed by frequency-domain multi-distance NIRS.
Michalos, A., M. Calderon, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, W. W. Mantulin, E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: FE7, 17-19, 2004

Brain Studies and Applications in Medicine and Surgery

  Do women see things differently than men do?
Jausovec, N., Jausovec, K.
NeuroImage (2008), doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.11.013
Noninvasive monitoring of red blood cell transfusion in very low birthweight infants using diffuse optical spectroscopy.
Cerussi A, Van Woerkom R, Waffarn F, Tromberg B.
J Biomed Opt. 2005 Sep-Oct;10(5):051401. PMID: 16292938
Transcranial Doppler and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Can Evaluate the Hemodynamic Effect of Carotid Artery Occlusion
Vernieri F, Tibuzzi F, Pasqualetti P, Rosato N, Passarelli F, Rossini PM, Silvestrini M.
Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):64-70. Epub 2003 Dec 18 PMID: 14684777
  Bilateral near-infrared monitoring of the cerebral concentration and oxygen-saturation of hemoglobin during right unilateral electro-convulsive therapy.
F. Fabbri, M. E. Henry, P. F. Renshaw, S. Nadgir, B. L. Ehrenberg, M. A. Franceschini, and S. Fantini.
Brain Research 99: 193-204, 2003
  Non-invasive determination of optical properties of adult brain with frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy.
Choi, J.H, M. Wolf, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, L.P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W.W. Mantulin,  V. Toronov, D.M. Hueber and E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: SuD33, 144-147, 2002
  Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared hemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a frequency-domain multi-distance instrument.
D. M. Hueber; M A. Franceschini; H. Y. Ma; Q. Zhang; J. R. Ballesteros; S. Fantini; D. Wallace; Ntziachristos; B. Chance.
Phys. Med. Biol. 4:, 41-42, 2001.
  Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Toronov, V., A .Webb, J.H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton and D. Hueber.
Med Phys; 28(4): 521-7, 2001
  Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Vladislav Toronov, Andrew Webb, Jee Hyun Choi, Martin Wolf, Larisa Safonova, Ursula Wolf, and Enrico Gratton
Optics Express 9(8): 417-427, 2001
  Monitoring Brain Activity Using Near-Infrared Light
S. Fantini, P. Aggarwal, K. Chen, and M. A. Franceschini
American Laboratory 33(20):15-17, 2001
Cerebral Hemodynamics Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy at Rest and During Motor Activation
M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton
OSA In Vivo Optical Imaging Workshop, A. Gandjbakhche ed., (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2000), 73-80, 2000.
  Correlation between oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortex during stimulation and a review of fast functional changes: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Wolf, M., U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L.A. Paunescu, J.H. Choi and E. Gratton.
Proc. 28th Ann Mtg International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT), Ed. B. Oeseburg, Pabst Sci Pub; p:1, 2000
  Near-infrared study of fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics during rest and motor stimulation: temporal analysis and spatial mapping.
Toronov, V., M.A. Franceschini, M. Filiaci, S. Fantini, M. Wolf, A. Michalos and E. Gratton.
Med. Phys. 27(4): 801-815, 2000
  Maps of cerebral hemoglobin concentration changes obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy. Characterization of phase shifts among locations
Wolf, M., V. Toronov, U. Wolf, L.A. Paunescu, A. Michalos and E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: TuF6, 416-418, 2000
  Evaluation of Vascular Steal with Near Infrared Spectroscopy.
Choudhury D, Levi M, Fennelly P.
J Am Soc Nephrol, A1028, 1999
Near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler in monohemispheric stroke.
Vernieri F, Rosato N, Pauri F, Tibuzzi F, Passarelli F, Rossini PM.
Eur Neurol. 1999;41(3):159-62. PMID: 10202248
  Measurements of Scattering and Absorption Changes in Muscle and Brain.
E. Gratton, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gratton, and M. Fabiani.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. of Lond. B 35 727-735, 1997.
Brain oxygenation monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass by near infrared spectroscopy.
De Blasi RA, Almenrader N, Ferrari M.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;413:97-104 PMID: 9238490
  Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by frequency-domain near-infrared spectrometer.
De Blasi, R.A., Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Ferrari, M., and Gratton, E.
Med Biol Eng Comput 33, 228-230 (1995).
  Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique.
Ferrari, M., De Blasi, R.A., Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Barbieri, B., Quaresima, V., and Gratton, E.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 2389, (1995), pp. 868-874.

Brain Imaging (slow signals) on humans

  Functional frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy detects fast neuronal signal in the motor cortex.
Wolf, M., U. Wolf, J.H. Choi, R. Gupta, L.P. Safonova, L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos and E. Gratton.
Neuroimage 17: 1868-1875, 2002
  Different time evolution of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin correlation changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Wolf, M., U. Wolf, V. Toronov, A. Michalos, L. A. Paunescu, J.H. Choi and E. Gratton.
Neuroimage 16: 704-712, 2002
Scalp-recorded optical signals make sound processing in the auditory cortex visible?
Rinne T, Gratton G, Fabiani M, Cowan N, Maclin E, Stinard A, Sinkkonen J, Alho K, Naatanen R.
Neuroimage. 1999 Nov;10(5):620-4. No abstract available. PMID: 10547339
  Real time optical imaging and spectroscopy of brain ischemia and hemorrhage.
Stankovic, M., Maulik, D., Stubblefield, P., Rosenfeld, W., Gratton, E., Franceschini, M., and Fantini, S.
Proc. of SPIE , Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 676-684.
  Real time optical imaging and spectroscopy of brain ischemia and hemorrhage in neonatal piglets.
Stankovic, M., Maulik, D., Rosenfeld, W., Stubblefield, P., Kofinas, A., Drexler, S., Nair, R., Franceschini, M., Hueber, D., Gratton, E., and Fantini, S.
J. Perinat. Med., 27: 279-286, 1999
Noninvasive detection of fast signals from the cortex using frequency-domain optical methods.
Gratton G, Fabiani M, Corballis PM, Gratton E.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 May 30;820:286-98; discussion 298-9. Review.. PMID: 9237461
Can we measure correlates of neuronal activity with non-invasive optical methods?
Gratton G, Fabiani M, Corballis PM.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;413:53-62. Review. PMID: 9238485
  Non invasive near infrared optical imaging of human brain function with subsecond temporal resolution.
Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., and Corballis, P.
Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol. 1 No. 4, (1996.), pp. 387-398
  Rapid Changes of Optical Parameters in the Human Brain during a Tapping Task.
Gratton G, Fabiani M, Friedman D, Franceschini MA, Fantini S, Corballis PM, and Gratton E.
J. Cogn Neuroscience 7: 446-456,1995
  Shades of grey matter: non invasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation.
Gratton, G., Corballis, P., Cho, E., Fabiani, M., and Hood, D.
Psychophysiology, Vol. 32, (1995), pp. 505-509.
  Feasability of intracranial near infrared optical scanning.
Gratton, G., Maier, J., Fabiani, M., Mantulin, W., and Gratton, E.
Psychophysiology, Vol. 31, (1994), pp. 211-215.

Coronary Bypass

Presence of Coronary Collaterals Is Associated With a Decreased Incidence of Cognitive Decline After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.
Dieleman, J.1., Sauër, A.M., Klijn, C., Nathoe, H., Moons, K., Kalkman, C., Kappelle, J., Van Dijk, D.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg., 2009, 35(1), 48-53.

Brain Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

  Pattern Analysis of Cerebral Hemodynamics Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in OSA.
CO Olopade, MD, A Michalos, MD, R Gupta, BA, M Lera, PhD, WW Mantulin, PhD, E Gratton, PhD.
Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 3: A705, 2006
  Effect of OSA on Cerebral Blood Flow Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.
C.O. Olopade, MD, A. Michalos, MD, R. Gupta, BA, E. Mensah, PhD, N. Fossland, BA, D. Picchietti, MD, D. Greeley, MD, S. Manchanda, MD, E. Gratton, PhD.
Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2: A527, 2005
  Age-correlated changes in cerebral hemodynamics assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Safonova, L.P., A. Michalos, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, D.M. Hueber, J.H. Choi, R. Gupta, C. Polzonetti, W.W. Mantulin and E. Gratton.
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 39(3): 207-225, 2004
  Near-infrared spectroscopy for the assessment of vascular responsiveness of the brain: A screening method for cerebrovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea.
Michalos, A., L.P Safonova, C.S. Olopade, J.H. Choi, W.W. Mantulin, D.M. Hueber,  B. Barbieri, E  Gratton.
SLEEP 26(suppl): 0983.R, A390-391, 2003
  Near-infrared brain oximetry in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Michalos, A., L.P Safonova, J.H. Choi, B. Barbieri, E.  Gratton.
Sleep Medicine 4(suppl. 1): S31-S32, 2003
Near-infrared spectroscopy and polysomnography during aal-night sleep in human subjects
S. Fantini, P. Aggarwal, K. Chen, M. A. Franceschini, and B. L. Ehrenberg
Proc. SPIE 5068: 155-162, 2003.
  Near-infrared spectroscopy for diagnosis and screening of cerebrovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Michalos, A., L.P. Safonova, J.H. Choi, R. Gupta, C. Polzonetti, M. Calderon and E. Gratton.
Proceedings, II International Symposium : "Shedding New Light on Disease: Optical Diagnostics for the New Millennium." p. 16, June 23-27, 2002, Reims, France
  Evaluation of brain oxygenation and hemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Michalos, A., L.P. Safonova, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J.H. Choi, R. Gupta, W.W.  Mantulin, D.M. Hueber, B. Barbieri and E. Gratton. Obstructive Sleep Apnea:
SLEEP 25(suppl): 547.R, A390-391, 2002
  Reduced cerebral hemodynamic response in sleep disorders: A NIRS frequency domain study.
Michalos, A.,  L.P. Safonova, D.M. Hueber, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J.H. Choi, R. Gupta, C. Polzonetti, B. Barbieri, W.W. Mantulin and E. Gratton.  Optical Society of America.
Biomedical Topics: MA1, 248-250, 2002
  Age correlated changes in cerebral hemodynamics assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.
Safonova, L.P., A. Michalos, D.M. Hueber, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, Jee H. Choi, R. Gupta, C. Polzonetti, B. Barbieri, W.W. Mantulin and E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: SuD35, 149-151, 2002
  Assessment of cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Michalos, A., L.A. Paunescu, M. Wolf, U. Wolf, V. Toronov, M.A. Franceschini, S. Fantini and E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: SuH16, 163-165, 2000

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

  Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in the calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected by near-infrared spectrophotometry.
Wolf, U., M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L.A. Paunescu, L.P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W.W. Mantulin and E. Gratton.
J Vasc Surg 37(5): 1017-1026, 2003
  Summary of the results of a 95 subject human clinical trial for the diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease using a near infrared frequency domain hemoglobin spectrometer.
Wallace, D., Michener, B., Choudhury, D., Levi, M., Fennelly, P., Hueber, D., and Barbieri, B.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 300-316.
  Near infrared spectroscopy in the early detection of peripheral vascular disease.
Choudhury, D., Michener, B., Fennelly, P., and Levi, M.
Journal of Vascular Technol. 23: 109-113, 1999
  Near infrared spectroscopy in the evaluation of lower limb ischemia in hemodialysis patients.
Choudhury, D., Michener, B., Fennelly, P., and Levi, M.
Journal of Vascular Technol. 23: 21-23, 1999
  Quantitative near infrared spectroscopy on patients with peripheral vascular disease.
Franceschini, M.
et. al. Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 3194, (1998), pp. 112-115.

Spinal Cord

Muscle Studies

  Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique.
Ferrari, M., De Blasi, R.A., Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Barbieri, B., Quaresima, V., and Gratton, E.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 2389, (1995), pp. 868-874.
  Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by frequency-domain near-infrared spectrometer.
De Blasi, R.A., Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Ferrari, M., and Gratton, E.
Med Biol Eng Comput 33: 228-230,1995
  In vivo study of human tissues with a portable near-infrared tissue spectrometer.
Maier, J.S., Barbieri, B., Chervu, A., Chervu, I., Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Levi, M., Mantulin, W.W., Rosenberg, A., Walker, S.A., and Gratton, E.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 2387, (1995), pp. 240-248.
  Quadriceps oxygenation changes during walking and running on a treadmill.
Quaresima, V., Pizzi, A., De Blasi, R., Ferrari, A., and Ferrari, M.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 2387, (1995), pp. 249-256.
O2 consumption-O2 delivery relationship and arteriolar resistance in the forearm of critically ill patients measured by near infrared spectroscopy.
De Blasi RA, Ferrari M, Antonelli M, Conti G, Almenrader N, Gasparetto A.
Shock. 1996 Nov;6(5):319-25. PMID: 8946645
  Oxidative metabolism in muscle.
M. Ferrari, T. Binzoni, V. Quaresima,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 352(1354): 677 - 683, 1997
  Difference in leg muscles oxygenation during treadmill exercise by a new near infrared frequency domain oximeter.
Quaresima, V., Franceschini, M.A., Fantini, S., Gratton, E., and Ferrari, M.
Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3194, (1998), pp. 116-120.
Comparison between near-infrared oximetry and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the resting peripheral muscle under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia
Marco Pagani, Ralf Ansjon, Folke Lind, Cathrine Jonsson, Johan Uusijarvi, Gamze Sumen, Hans Jacobsson, Stig A. Larsson.
Proceedings of SPIE. 3194: 151-158, 1998
Calf muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption measured with near infrared spectroscopy during venous occlusion.
Paunescu, L.A., Casavola, C., Franceschini, M.A., Fantini, S., Winter, L., Kim, J., Wood, D., Gratton, E.
SPIE Proc., Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 317-323.
Scattering coefficient-hemoglobin concentration relation determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy during venous occlusion.
Paunescu, L.A., U. Wolf, M. Wolf, A. Michalos and E. Gratton.
Optical Society of America Biomedical Topics: TuD2, 363-365, 2000
Mapping of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin changes of the human calf during venous occlusion.
Wolf, U., M. Wolf, J.H. Choi, L.A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, V. Toronov and E. Gratton.
Proc. 28th Ann Mtg International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT), Ed. B. Oeseburg, Pabst Sci Pub; p:5, 2000
Mapping of hemodynamics on the human calf with near infrared spectroscopy and the influence of the adipose tissue thickness.
Wolf, U., M. Wolf, J.H. Choi, L.A. Paunescu, L.P. Safonova, A. Michalos and E. Gratton.
Adv Exp Med Biol 510: 225-230, 2003
Spatial distribution of vastus lateralis blood flow and oxyhemoglobin saturation measured at the end of isometric quadriceps contraction by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy.
Quaresima V, Ferrari M, Franceschini MA, Hoimes ML, Fantini S.
J Biomed. Optics 9(2): 413-20, 2004
Microvascular dysfunction and skeletal muscle oxygenation assessed by phase-modulation near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with septic shock.
De Blasi RA, Palmisani S, Alampi D, Mercieri M, Romano R, Collini S, Pinto G.
Intensive Care Med. 2005 Dec;31(12):1661-8. Epub 2005 Oct 5. PMID: 16205889
Effects of fibre orientation, myoglobin redox form, and postmortem storage on NIR tissue oximeter mearuments of beef longissimus muscle
Mohan, A., Hunt, M.C., Barstow, T.J., Houser, T.A., Bopp, C., Hueber, D.M
Meat Science 84 (2010) 79-85

Sport Medicine

  Pattern of deoxy{Hb + Mb} during ramp cycle exercise: Influence of aerobic fitness status.
Boone, J, Koppo, K, Barstow, T, Bouckaert, J.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 105(6): 851-859, 2009
  Muscle microvascular hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation within the contraction-relaxation cycle
Lutjemeier, B.J., Ferreira, L.F., Poole, D.C., Townsend, D., Barstow, T.J
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 160 (2008) 131-138
  Frequency Analysis of Muscle Contraction and NIRS Variables: Implications for Tissue Gas Exchange
Lutjemeier, Barbara J.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Townsend, Dana K.; Barstow, Thomas J.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 38(5) Supplement: S248, 2006
Human femoral artery and estimated muscle capillary blood flow kinetics following the onset of exercise.
Harper AJ, Ferreira LF, Lutjemeier BJ, Townsend DK, Barstow TJ.
Exp Physiol. 2006 Jul;91(4):661-71. Epub 2006 Mar 23. PMID: 16556660
Effects of pedal frequency on estimated muscle microvascular O2 extraction.
Ferreira LF, Lutjemeier BJ, Townsend DK, Barstow TJ.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(5):558-63. Epub 2005 Dec 21. PMID: 16369819
Kinetics of restoration of arteriolar tone after exercise.
Barstow TJ, Lutjemeier BJ, Ferreira LF.
J Appl Physiol. 2005 Aug;99(2):775. No abstract available. PMID: 16020445
Kinetics of estimated human muscle capillary blood flow during recovery from exercise.
Ferreira LF, Harper AJ, Townsend DK, Lutjemeier BJ, Barstow TJ.
Exp Physiol. 2005 Sep;90(5):715-26. Epub 2005 May 20. PMID: 15908509
Dynamics of skeletal muscle oxygenation during sequential bouts of moderate exercise.
Ferreira LF, Lutjemeier BJ, Townsend DK, Barstow TJ.
Exp Physiol. 2005 May;90(3):393-401. Epub 2005 Feb 11. PMID: 15708875
Muscle contraction-blood flow interactions during upright knee extension exercise in humans.
Lutjemeier BJ, Miura A, Scheuermann BW, Koga S, Townsend DK, Barstow TJ.
J Appl Physiol. 2005 Apr;98(4):1575-83. Epub 2004 Nov 19. PMID: 15557016
Muscle capillary blood flow kinetics estimated from pulmonary O2 uptake and near-infrared spectroscopy.
Ferreira LF, Townsend DK, Lutjemeier BJ, Barstow TJ.
J Appl Physiol. 2005 May;98(5):1820-8. Epub 2005 Jan 7. PMID: 15640391
  Muscle Oxygenation during Incremental Exercise and Recovery: Implications of Assuming Constant Scattering
Ferreira, Leonardo Franklin; Hueber, Dennis M.; Lutjemeier, Barbara J.; Townsend, Dana K.; Barstow, Thomas
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 37(5) Supplement May 2005 p S361
  The Influence of Adipose Tissue Thickness on Near-Infrared Spectrometry during Intra-contraction Knee Extension Exercise
Townsend, Dana; Ferreira, Leonardo; Lutjemeier, Barbara; Barstow, Thomas
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 36(5) Supplement May 2004 p S23
Differences in the oxygenation of the forearm muscle during isometric contraction in trained and untrained subjects.
Usaj A.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 7(2):375-7, 2002
The endurance training effect on the oxygenation status of an isometrically contracted forearm muscle
Anton Usaj
Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 442 (7): r155-r156, 2001

Animal Studies

  Lagged covariance structure models for studying functional connectivity in the brain
E. Rykhlevskaia, M. Fabiani, and G. Gratton
NeuroImage, 30, 1203-1218 (2006).
Near-infrared frequency-domain optical spectrometry (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a combined approach to studying cerebral maturation of neonatal rabbits.
D'Arceuil HE, Hotakainen MP, Liu C, Themelis G, deCrespigny AJ, Franceschini MA.
Journal of Biomedical Optics 10(1): 011011. 2005.
Human arginase II: crystal structure and physiological role in male and female sexual arousal.
Cama E, Colleluori DM, Emig FA, Shin H, Kim SW, Kim NN, Traish AM, Ash DE, Christianson DW.
Biochemistry. 2003 Jul 22;42(28):8445-51. PMID: 12859189
  Near-Infrared Spiroximetry: Non-Invasive Measurement of Venous Saturation in Piglets and Human Subjects.
M. A. Franceschini, D. A. Boas, A. Zourabian, S. G. Diamond, S. Nadgir, D. W. Lin, J. B. Moore, and S. Fantini,
J. Appl. Physiol. 92: 2-384, 2002.
Hemodynamic evaluation of the female sexual arousal response in an animal model.
Min K, Munarriz R, Berman J, Kim NN, Goldstein I, Traish AM, Stankovic MR.
J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):557-65. PMID: 11554219
  Role of frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the detection of neonatal brain hemorrhage - A newborn piglet study.
Stankovic, MR., Maulik D., Rosenfeld, W., Stubblefield, PG., Kofinas, AD., Gratton, E., Franceschini, MA., Fantini, S., and Hueber, D.
J Matern. Fetal Med. 9: 2-149, 2000.
  Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time.
S. Fantini, M.A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, W. Rosenfeld, D. Maulik, P. Stubblefield, M.R. Stankovic;
Optics Express. 4(8), 308-314, 1999.
  Non-Invasive Optical Monitoring of the Newborn Piglet Brain Using Continuous-Wave and Frequency-Domain Methods
S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic.
Phys. Med. Biol. 44:1543-1563, 1999

Instrumentation and Methods

A Brief Review on the History of Human Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Development and Fields of Application
Ferrari, M., and Quaresima, V.
NeuroImage, 2012.
Modulation of an optical needle's reflectivity alters the average photon path through scattering media
Paul Simonson, Enrico D'Amico, and Enrico Gratton
J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1): 14023-31, 2006
  Absolute Near-Infrared Brain Oximeter. 
Michalos A, Gupta R, Safonova LP, Lera M, Olopade CO, Mantulin WW, Hueber DM, Barbieri B, Picchietti D, Greeley D, Gratton E.
7th Annual NIH SBIR/STTR Conference. July 28-29, 2005
  Multi-source phased-array approach to improve the spatial resolution in frequency-domain diffuse optical imaging
Ning Liu   Zucker, M.   Fantini, S.
Lasers and Electro-Optics May 2004 Volume: 2,  3 pp.
  Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media
F. Fabbri, A. Sassaroli, M. E. Henry, and S. Fantini.
Phys. Med. Biol. 49: 1183-1201, 2004
  Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: Near infrared spectroscopy approach.
Jee Hyun Choi, Martin Wolf, Vlad Toronov, Ursula Wolf, Chiara Polzonetti, Dennis Hueber, Larisa P. Safonova, Rajarsi Gupta, Antonios Michalos, William Mantulin, and Enrico Gratton.
J Biomed Opt. 9(1): 221-9, 2004
  Absolute frequency-domain pulse oximetry of the brain: Methodology and measurements.
Wolf, M., M.A.  Franceschini, L.A. Paunescu, V. Toronov,   A. Michalos, U. Wolf, E. Gratton and S. Fantini.
Adv Exp Med Biol 530: 61-73, 2003
  In vitro correlation between reduced scattering coefficient and hemoglobin of human blood determined by near-infrared spectroscopy
Paunescu, L.A., A. Michalos, J. H. Choi, U. Wolf, M. Wolf and E. Gratton.
SPIE Proc. 4250: 319-326, 2001
  Noninvasive optical method of measuring tissue and arterial saturation: an application to absolute pulse oximetry of the brain.
M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini
Opt. Lett. 24: 829-83, 1999
  Near infrared absorption and scattering spectra of tissues in vivo.
Franceschini, M.A., Gratton, E., Hueber, D., and Fantini, S.
SPIE Proc., Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 526-531.
  Near infrared spectroscopy and the tilting table protocol: a novel method to study the blood flow and the oxygen consumption in tissues.
Casavola, C., Paunescu, L.A., Franceschini, M.A., Fantini, S., Winter, L., Kim, J., Wood, D., Gratton, E.
Proc. Of SPIE, Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 685-692.
  New optical probe designs for absolute self calibrating NIR tissue hemoglobin measurements.
Hueber, D., Fantini, S., Cerussi, A., and Barbieri, B.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 3597, (1999), pp. 618-631.
  Frequency-Domain Optical Measurements in Vitro on Two- and Three-Layered Tissue-Like Phantoms and in Vivo on Infant Heads
M. A. Franceschini, A. Paunescu, S. Fantini, S. Pratesi, J. S. Maier, G. P. Donzelli, and E. Gratton.
OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto and M. Patterson, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 1998), Vol XXI, pp. 232-236.
  Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media.
Franceschini, M.A., Fantini, S., Paunescu, L.A., Maier, J., and Gratton, E.
Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 1, (1998), pp. 7447-7458.
  Quantitative spectroscopic determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a turbid medium: analysis of the effect of water absorption.
Franceschini, M. A., Fantini, S., Cerussi, A., Barbieri, B., Chance B., and Gratton, E.
J. of Biomed. Opt., Vol. 2, (1997), pp. 147-153.
  Optical Study of the skeletal muscle during exercise with a second generation frequency-domain tissue oximeter.
Franceschini, M. A., Wallace, D., Barbieri, B., Fantini, S., Mantulin, W.W., Pratesi S., Donzelli, G.P., and Gratton, E.
Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 2979, (1997), pp. 807-814.
  Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for non-invasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry.
Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Maier, J.S., Walker, S.A., Barbieri, B., and Gratton, E.
Opt. Eng. 34: 32-42, 1995
Frequency-Domain Method for Determining Spectral Properties in Multiply Scattering Media: Methemoglobin Absorption Spectrum in a Tissue-Like Phantom.
Fishkin JB, So PTC, Cerussi AE, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, and Gratton E.
Appl Opt 34: 1143- 1155, 1995
Semi- Infinite-Geometry Boundary Problem for Light Migration in Highly Scattering Media: a Frequency- Domain Study in the Diffusion Approximation.
Fantini S, Franceschini MA, and Gratton E.
B11: 2128-2138, 1994
Possible Correlation between Blood Glucose Concentration and Reduced Scattering Coefficient of Tissues in the Near-Infrared.
Maier JS, Walker SA, Fantini S, Franceschini MA and Gratton E.
Opt Lett 19: 2062-2064, 1994
  Quantitative determination of the absorption spectra of chromophores in strongly scattering media: a light-emitting-diode based technique.
Fantini, S., Franceschini, M.A., Fishkin, J.B., Barbieri, B., and Gratton, E.
Applied Optics 33: 5204-5213, 1994
Feasibility of intracranial near-infrared optical scanning.
Gratton G, Maier JS, Fabiani M, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
Psychophysiology. 1994 Mar;31(2):211-5. PMID: 8153259